Glossary

 ALPHA ALKYLATED 17: 
This term is fairly important to understand. It refers to the addition of an alkyl substitute on the 17 carbon position, or a C-17 position, of the steroid molecule. On most steroids of oral form, this was discovered to greatly increase the life of the oral steroid in the body. Without this adjustment, most oral steroids would be rendered inactive after first pass. Although this adjustment makes oral steroids much more effective, it has also made their toxicity the highest of any steroids.
 
ANABOLIC STEROIDS: 
These are synthetic derivatives of testosterone; a hormone that occurs naturally in the body controlling many functions. Among these functions is the promoting of anabolism. Steroids mimic this natural occurring event and have the ability to do so at an accelerated rate. Though the exact means by which steroids exert their effects is still somewhat of a mystery, some aspects are known for certain. Once anabolic steroids are in the blood, they bind to androgen receptor sites. Then they enter the cell, just like the endogenous hormone would, and alter the function of that cell. After changes in DNA and RNA patterns, an increased rate of protein synthesis is observed. This increase is thought to occur simultaneous to increased nitrogen retention by some and secondary to it by others. The important thing is that it happens, not how it happens actually, because this retention of nitrogen is actually a sign that muscle tissue is being deposited. Anabolic steroids also inhibit the amount of a catabolic hormone called cortisol that enters muscle tissue. Less of this hormone is thought to aid in muscle growth as well. Anabolic steroids can be broken down into two classifications; anabolic and androgenic. The type and concentration of androgen receptors found within an organ or tissue determine to what degree it is effected by the anabolic or the androgenic features. Since anabolic steroids are not totally separated between the two, both are felt to some degree when any steroid is used. It would be great if steroids only exerted their effect on muscles but unfortunately, they effect many other parts of the body as well. This is why dramatic gains in muscularity are often accompanied by dramatic side effects.

ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate): 
This is an important cellular metabolite involved with energy exchange within the cell. Chemical energy is conserved in a cell by the phosphorylation of ADP to ATP primarily in the mitochondria, as a high energy phosphate bond. ADP combined with CP forms ATP, the useable fuel for muscular contractions.

ANDROGENIC: 
This term refers to a classification of testosterone. This function of testosterone is responsible for male secondary sexual characteristics like body hair, deepening of the voice, development of the male sex organs and sex drive. This property is responsible for the majority of side effects of steroid use. Because steroids are not totally separated between androgenic and anabolic properties, both effects are felt in varying degrees when steroids are used. The androgenic quality is favored by some who feel they benefit from the increased aggressiveness and rather fast strength increases associated with androgens. Also, the glycogen retention of androgenic steroids is the highest seen. When one calls a steroid a high androgen, it usually means that it is very high in anabolic properties as well. This type of steroid will give good size and strength gains, but in the long run, highly androgenic compounds result in side effects and would wisely be avoided as much as possible.

AROMATIZE: 
This term relates to a reaction in the body where excess testosterone or androgens are converted to estrogen. This is exactly what steroid users do not want. It is most often associated with androgenic steroid use. A number of side effects are tied to this reaction, the most common of which is the development of breast tissue in men. This build
up of estrogen in the mammary gland is called gynecomastia. It is best avoided by not using excessive dosages and by limiting the use of androgenic steroids. Some steroids aromatize very easily resulting in a high estrogen level and all the side effects that accompany it. Some of these steroids are Dianabol, Anadrol, and Testosterones.

ARRAY: 
This is a term that some athletes refer to as a stack. This might refer to a number of steroid preparations being used in a select pattern and/or stagger combination.

BASEMENT DRUG: 
This is what many athletes call counterfeit or designer steroids.

BLACK MARKET: 
This is a term used to refer to the illegal distribution channel by which the majority of athletes attain their anabolic steroids. The term implies that the system is somewhat uniform but it actually is quite diverse. There is no central place which is the center of this market, it is actually made up of hundreds of branches in the U.S. These range
from several very large suppliers which attain the drugs and then wholesale them out to dozens of dealers in cities throughout the country. Also included in the black market are hundreds of individuals who travel to Mexico, buy varying quantities of steroids and smuggle them back. Then they retail the drugs out themselves to friends and fellow lifters in their area, for a handsome profit in most cases. Another black market dealer might just be a person who works in a pharmacy, or pharmaceutical supply warehouse who takes some steroids from there and sells them to friends or fellow lifters.
Other sources of black market steroids range from doctors to race horse owners who have easy legal access to the drugs, but distribute them through the underground black market channels. A great deal of European steroids are smuggled into the country by athletes or by connections which foreign bodybuilders maintained after moving to the U.S. to train. The black market exists in nearly every town throughout the country in one form or another. The persons who used to be involved with the dealings of the black market were what most would call good guys. It was kind of like a big club that you belonged to if you were a dealer. Just one fellow helping out another is how most felt. Nowadays it is not quite
as pleasant. The big money and counterfeit scene involved with today&_39;s black market have led to a very unpleasant element. Some of the dealers on today&_39;s market are involved with hard drugs as well as steroids. Some practice strong arm, hard crime type businesses. This has given the whole market a bad name. A great deal of the good dealers gave up the business when stiffer penalties against steroids were invoked a couple of years ago. This is what most likely left room for some low lives to get involved.

BLOCKING AGENT: 
This is a name given to a class of prescription medicines that can prevent the excretion of steroids from the kidneys into the urine. By temporarily blocking this excretion many athletes can test negative for anabolic steroids on a blood test while they are currently on a cycle. Several of the more popular blocking agents used have been Probenecid, Carinamide, and Annirane. Most blocking agents are banned by committees who also ban anabolic steroids.

CATABOLIC: 
This is the opposite of anabolic. It means the breakdown of tissue. Catabolic states occur in disease, infection, and immobilization. Athletes who intensely train with weights are also inflicting catabolic states on themselves. A negative nitrogen balance most often accompanies catabolic states. Anabolic steroids reverse this state and actually work best on muscles which are in this condition. This is why the intensity of a person&_39;s training can contribute to the effectiveness of an anabolic steroid.

CLEAN: 
An athlete who has tested negative for anabolic steroids.

COUNTERFEITS: 
This term, as it relates to the steroid business, refers to products that are not real pharmaceutical drugs (fakes).

CP (Creatine Phosphate): 
Creatine Phosphate is an inorganic phosphate molecule which binds with ADP to form ATP. It is felt that some steroids increase the availability or production of CP so that more ATP can be available to the muscles which increases strength and endurance.

DESIGNER DRUG: 
This is a steroid that may not be a counterfeit but a coined trade name. Examples are Exelon, Nordyethylene 2, Endrobolin, DMU, and Dihydrolone. Most of these compounds contain one or more domestic steroid preparations.

DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE: 
This is a parent compound of a number of steroid preparations. The hormone itself is one which occurs naturally in the body. DHT is responsible for several of the distinctly androgenic effects of testosterone like facial hair, genetic balding and male reproductive organ development. It plays a major role in the augmentation of skeletal muscle. A great percentage of endogenous and exogenous testosterones are converted to DHT in the body which many feel results in the actual building of muscle tissue. Common side effects of DHT are acne and accelerated balding.

DIURETIC: 
This is any product that increases the amount of urine excreted by the body. These range from herbal formulas to strong chemicals which drain the body of electrolytes and fluid. The primary clinical use for these drugs is to treat persons with high blood pressure. Bodybuilders often use diuretics in an attempt to remove subcutaneous water so their muscles look more defined. This works very well for some bodybuilders but even more often it leaves the athlete&_39;s muscles drawn and flat. On occasion, muscle cramping, caused by the loss of too much potassium, is so severe
that the bodybuilder cannot even pose. Other athletes use diuretics to dilute urine samples in drug tested events. This is usually unwise because the diuretics themselves are banned by most committees which ban steroids. Other athletes which might need to make a certain weight class for an event rely on diuretics for fast weight loss. Over dosage of certain diuretics can lead to numerous side effects, even heart failure.

ENDOGENOUS: 
This term refers to things which occur naturally in the body. For example, there are steroid hormones in the body which are a part of its natural day to day functions. These are endogenous steroids.

EFFICACIOUS: 
This means producing the desired effect.

ERGOGENICS: 
This term refers to the study of ergogenesis or muscle performance. Anabolic steroids are referred to as an ergogenic aid because they can enhance muscle performance.

ESTROGEN: 
This is the female sex hormone responsible for secondary sexual characteristics in females. It is found in small quantities in males.

EXOGENOUS: 
This term refers to things originating outside the body. For example, a synthetic steroid that a person injects into his body is an exogenous source of that hormone.

FIRST PASS: 
This term refers to an event where a compound goes from the stomach or intestines, to the liver where it is either destroyed or passed through into the blood stream. All oral steroids must go through this process before they can get into the blood and bind to cells where they exert their functions. The first pass of an oral steroid destroys a majority
of the substance and is rough on the liver itself.

GC/MS: 
This stands for gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. This is an analytical method for testing urine samples and for doing substance analysis which is the most accurate method used to detect anabolic steroids. GC/MS is acknowledged as a superior method for analysis because it can not only detect extremely low levels but can also easily
differentiate one compound from another. Since a drug extract can contain hundreds of constituents, a gas chromatograph (GC) is first used to isolate each individual component for analysis by the mass spectrometer (MS). There, a beam of electrons shatters the drug&_39;s molecules into a distinct pattern of molecular fragments, its mass spectrum. This method is quite a bit more expensive than the radio immunoassay screens but it is much more accurate.

HYPERPLASIA: 
This term refers to an increase in the number of cells. It is known that the majority of muscle bulk that comes from using anabolic steroids occurs from hypertrophy. There have been some studies that suggest in certain circumstances, anabolic steroids can cause hyperplasia or an increase in the actual number of muscle cells. This is not the most widely accepted theory though. Many feel that the use of Growth Hormone causes hyperplasia which enables the generically ungifted athlete to develop more muscle size using the GH than they would be able to acquire using anabolic steroids alone. This theory is highly contested.

HYPERTROPHY: 
This term refers to the sought after goal of nearly all weight training athletes. It is the increase in size or bulk of a muscle.

LIPOLYSIS: 
This term refers to the release of stored fat for use as fuel by the body.

METABOLISM: 
This term refers to the breaking down of substances in the body which is catabolism, and the building of substances in the body which is anabolism. It also refers to the entire process of substances coming into the body, being converted to particular compounds, and the rate at which they are utilized. This rate is primarily controlled by hormones.

NATURAL: 
A term used to refer to athletes who have not used anabolic steroids for a particular period of time. Usually natural athletic competitions are open to athletes who have not used steroids or other illegal ergogenic aids for a period of no less than twelve months.

NEUROTRANSMITTER: 
This is a substance that is released at the end of one nerve cell when a nerve impulse arrives there, diffuses across the gap to the next nerve cell, and alters the membrane of that cell in such a way that it becomes more or less likely to fire or actually does fire. Some amino acids work as neurotransmitters in the brain.

NITROGEN: 
This is an important constituent of many cells, i.e. proteins. It is what distinguishes protein from other substances.

NITROGEN BALANCE: 
This is a state in which the daily intake of nitrogen from proteins equals the daily excretion of nitrogen. A negative nitrogen balance occurs when the excretion of nitrogen exceeds the daily intake. A positive nitrogen balance exists when the amount of nitrogen ingested is greater than what is excreted. Steroid users are often in a positive nitrogen balance which some feel is an indication that muscle acquisition is occurring. Nitrogen is excreted mainly as urea in the urine; ammonia, creatine and uric acid account for a further small amount.

NORTESTOSTERONE 19: 
This is a parent compound of a number of steroid preparations. Derivatives of this source exhibit minimal liver toxicity and related side effects. They are easily detectable on drug tests; metabolites of Nortestosterone can be measured as late as 12 months after administering the drug.

PARENTERAL: 
This term is used to refer to liquid drugs which are taken by injection. This might be intravenous (in the vein), subcutaneous (under the skin), or intramuscular (in the muscle). Anabolic steroids are meant for injection by deep intramuscular injection. This usually requires a 1,5 “ needle, 21 to 25 gauge. The recommended injection site is the upper outer quadrant of the gluteal muscle.

PLATEAU: This is a point in a cycle where the effectiveness of a steroid diminishes. Most often this occurs because of receptor down regulation. This is a point where steroid receptor sites are no longer recognizing the exogenous androgens. Basically what is happening at this point is that the steroid is binding to the necessary target cells; therefore, it is of no benefit to the user. Plateaus can occur after as little as three weeks of a particular steroid&_39;s use, but are more often reported after six weeks.
There are several ways that athletes try to overcome these plateaus. Most often, they increase the dosage of the drug to keep it working. This is usually effective up to a certain point, but it soon reaches dosages which exceed the risk-to- benefit factor. Another common practice is to cycle the steroids in a stack-
stagger pattern. In this type of cycle the user takes a number of different steroids, each for three to six weeks. When the steroids are taken in short bursts like this, the steroid receptor sites usually do not shut down. Other steroid users go off the drugs when they reach a plateau. After taking several weeks off the drugs, they often find the steroids to be more effective when they go back on. Other steroid users feel that there are special arrays which they find do not reach plateaus. An array is just a stack of two or more steroids, or drugs. Arrays are often individualized after receptor mapping.

RADIOIMMUNOASSAY: 
(RIA) This is a method used for the detection of anabolic steroids. This method is felt to be insufficient as it can produce a number of false positive and negative readings. It is rarely used for the screening of anabolic steroids anymore since there have been great improvements in GC/MS technology.

REBOUND: 
This is a condition that many athletes experience shortly after they discontinue a steroid cycle. During this rebound state the athlete often incurs his best strength and size gains. This may be due to an over production of testosterone by the testes upon the cessation of exogenous steroid use. This rebound effect seems to be greatest following HCG administration.

RECEPTOR MAPPING: 
This is a technique which is used in an attempt to determine how a certain steroid affects a given individual. This has been very helpful for a few athletes in determining how much of a steroid is enough. Some guys can take 60 mg a day of oral Dianabol and have no side effects, while another could take 15 mg a day and suffer aromatization, water retention, and acne. Each person reacts differently to dosages of different steroids. Mapping is done in an effort to individualize dosages so that one maximizes gains while minimizing side effects. Mapping starts with recording a number of aspects of a cycle. First, all the steroids taken must be carefully documented everyday. Graphs of weight and strength gains should be made up and filled in once a week. A thorough diary should be kept which reports any side effects like acne, water retention, gynecomastia, etc. Other variables should be monitored like energy levels, sex drive, and appetite. Usually these things are recorded three times a week. During the cycle, the dosages should be
steadily increased. If side effects are occurring at the same time strength and weight gains are being experienced, the dosage should be slowly lowered to see if gains outweigh the adverse reactions. All the variable readings can give clues as to whether the drugs are working. If they are, energy levels, appetite, and sex drive should all be high. Following the graphs can be the best way to use receptor mapping. This method has some flaws. It does not take into consideration that a person may not have taken a long enough off cycle, that he is not training right, and/or that proper nutrition is not being consumed. An effort to keep all these factors stable helps results. Some just use common sense as a form of receptor mapping. For example, if an athlete was taking 200 mg of Deca a week and experiencing good strength and weight gains, while noticing no side effects this dose would be suspected to be optimal. Experimenting with going up to 400 mg per week may bring on some side effects but not more gains. In this case, the lower dosage comes out on top. Mapping just one drug at a time comes out to be more accurate than trying to map a stack of drugs. Receptor mapping is not a science by any means, but for some it has proven to be an invaluable source of personal information.

RISK TO BENEFIT FACTOR: 
This term relates to using common sense in administering anabolic steroids. The risk to benefit factor can be used to analyze the amount of benefit that is derived by using additional quantities or additional items in the anabolic steroid stack. The risk to benefit factor should always be strongly slanted toward the side of the benefit to justify the additional use of anabolic steroids. For example, the risk of using three Dianabol tablets a day in a cycle might be very low. The benefit from using three Dianabol tablets a day during a stack could be substantial in terms of muscle mass and strength gained. Increasing the dosage of Dianabol to eight tablets a day might significantly increase the risk of side effects while only slightly increasing the benefit in size and strength. In this case, the risk would outweigh the benefit and the proposed increase in dosage would not satisfy the risk to benefit factor. Using this type of logic during a steroid cycle can be extremely beneficial in protecting the health of the user while maximizing results.

SIDE EFFECTS: 
These are the unwanted effects or adverse reactions from using drugs, in this case anabolic steroids.

STACKING: 
This term applied to the use of anabolic steroids, means taking two or more drugs at the same time. The motivation behind stacking is that the user will saturate multiple steroid receptor populations, more than if only one steroid were used. Thus lower dosages are necessary which means less dose related side effects for the user. Reports indicate that this method is quite effective. Some steroid users claim that certain drugs are synergistic. This means they work together. Stacks can involve using two or more injectables, orals, or a combination of each. Some stacks which
are very prevalent are: Deca and Dianabol, Anavar and Testosterone, and Winstrol and Parabolan. Other drugs are "pre-stacked" by the manufacturer. Some of these are: Primoteston, Sustanon, Drive, and Spectriol.

STAGGER: 
This term refers to the use of several steroids in an overlapping pattern. Staggering can also involve fluctuating the dosage of the steroid.

SUPPLEMENT: 
This is a preparation such as a pill, powder or liquid containing nutrients&_39; not a food.

SYNERGISTIC: 
This is an action that is created when agents cooperate with one another. That is, one drug could enhance or multiply the effectiveness of another. Some believe steroids and growth hormone are synergistic.

VIRILIZE: 
This term refers to attaining the characteristics of a mature male. Women who use steroids risk virilizing effects. These are caused by the androgens which exist in all anabolic steroids to a varying degree.